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  • Water equalizes at 9.2 ppm at 60 degrees C (adjusted for Te and elevation). Oxygen is consumed by aerobic bacteria so the more oxygen the greater the removal. Continuous rippling or surface exchange increases the absorption of oxygen.

  • Everything happens at the surface so continual surface exchange allows for greater oxygen absorption and greater chemical (gas) releases. Increasing the absorption of oxygen results in an exchange so that more chemicals (gases, NH3, CO2) can exit. 

  • Continual surface exchange equalizes pond temperature and increases evaporation (a cooling process) while preventing temperature increases at the surface where algae grow and aggregate into matts etc. 

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