top of page
Pond Biology_edited.jpg


  • Aerobic Bacteria - digest soluble BOD (the majority of incoming nutrients). These bacteria benefit from active but not turbulent mixing which occurs as the nutrients, oxygen and bacteria are in immediate contact. Expanding the top half or aerobic layer of the pond results in greater nutrient removal.

  • Facultative Bacteria - digest semi-soluble nutrients and benefit from passive mixing that allows settling and uniform nutrient distribution. Facultative bacteria produce acids necessary for anaerobic bacteria.

  • Anaerobic Bacteria – digest solids (sludge) using acids created by facultative bacteria to break down complex nutrients. Anaerobic bacteria die in the presence of oxygen so must be undisturbed (no mixing) to provide the greatest benefit. 

bottom of page